The magnetic properties of stainless steel can vary depending on its composition and specific grade. In general, stainless steel is considered to be a non-magnetic material because it is primarily composed of austenite, a form of stainless steel that is not magnetic. However, certain stainless steel grades can exhibit magnetic properties to some degree. These grades are known as “ferromagnetic” or “magnetically soft” stainless steels.
The most common stainless steel grades that exhibit magnetic properties are in the austenitic-ferritic or duplex stainless steel family, such as the aforementioned 2205 stainless steel. These duplex stainless steels contain a balanced microstructure of both austenite and ferrite, and the ferrite phase can contribute to the material’s magnetism.
On the other hand, austenitic stainless steels, which include popular grades like 304 and 316, are generally non-magnetic. They have a higher concentration of austenite, which does not exhibit magnetic properties. However, it’s worth noting that austenitic stainless steel can acquire some magnetism if it undergoes cold working processes like bending, deep drawing, or cold rolling.
In summary, while stainless steel is typically non-magnetic, there are specific grades, such as duplex stainless steels, that can be magnetic to varying degrees. The magnetism of stainless steel depends on its composition, microstructure, and processing conditions.
There are various types of magnetic stainless steel
400 series ferritic and martensite stainless steels are magnetic, such as 403, 410, 414, 416, 416 (Se), 420, 430, 431, 440A, 440B, and 440C.
Duplex stainless steel is magnetic, such as 2205 2507.
200 series and 300 series austenitic stainless steel without magnetism, such as 201, 202, 301, 304, 316, 317, 321, 310S